There are many reasons that a dismissal might be deemed as being unfair. These range from a dismissal which is made on grounds of a protected characteristic under the Equality Act 2012 (e.g. race, sex, age) to cases in which the correct procedure was not followed in the lead-up to a dismissal.
Aside from the award an employment tribunal may offer if an unfair dismissal claim is upheld, the cost of defending a claim in court can be significant. Employers should ensure that a fair and legally meticulous disciplinary procedure is followed to help avoid any claims.